Goal 10 calls for reducing inequalities in income as well as those based on sex, age, disability, race, class, ethnicity, religion and opportunity – both within and among countries. World leaders recognized the positive contribution of international migration to inclusive growth and sustainable development, while acknowledging that it demands coherent and comprehensive responses. Accordingly, they committed to cooperate internationally to ensure safe, orderly and regular migration. The Goal also addresses issues related to representation and development assistance.
Reducing inequality within countries
In 56 out of 94 countries with data for 2007–12 the per capita income of the poorest 40 percent is growing faster than the national average (countries above the diagonal line in figure 10a). Of those 56, 9 still experienced negative growth (group A in figure 10a), including high-income countries and middle-income countries . Thus, higher growth among the poorest 40 percent does not necessarily lead to prosperity. Another group of countries experienced relatively strong growth (above 3 percent) over the same period for both the poorest 40 percent and the total population, but in some cases the growth rate for the bottom 40 percent was lower than the national average (China and Vietnam; group B in figure 10a). In these cases the Sustainable Development Goal target would not have been met, even though people on average were better off. Among countries with data, a larger proportion of low- and middle-income countries than of high-income countries met the target. Specifically, in around two-thirds of low- and middle-income countries the income of the poorest 40 percent grew faster than the national average, compared with half of high-income countries (figure 10b).
Many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia saw a decline in income inequality
When income growth among the poorest people in a country is faster than the national average, income inequality is reduced. In 56 out of 94 countries with data for the period 2007−2012, the per capita income of the poorest 40 per cent of households grew more rapidly than the national average. This was especially true in Latin America and the Caribbean and in Asia, where 88 per cent and 67 per cent of countries, respectively, saw gains for the poorest 40 per cent of households. That said, faster growth for the poorest does not necessarily imply greater prosperity, since nine of the 56 countries experienced negative income growth rates over this period.